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Journal of Applied Sciences,Engineering,Technology and Development

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1.0.    GENERAL GUIDELINES
          1.1.    Submission declaration
          1.2.    Transfer of Copyright Agreement
          1.3.    Peer Review
2.0.    PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS
          2.1.    Original Research Article
          2.2.    Review articles
          2.3.    Short Communication
3.0.    SUBMISSION OF PREPARED ARTICLES
          3.1.    Submission checklist
          3.2.    Manuscript Submission

1.0.    GENERAL GUIDELINES
JASETD is an international multidisciplinary Journal, which publishes Original Research articles, Short communications, and Full-length reviews in Applied and Social Sciences, Engineering and Technology fields. Authors are encouraged to read instructions carefully before submitting their manuscripts.

1.1.    Submission declaration
•    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an academic thesis), and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that, if accepted by JASETD, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of JASETD. The cover letter must also confirm that the manuscript has not been submitted to any other Journal for publication.
•    Submission of an article implies that its publication is approved by all authors and by the responsible authorities where the work was conducted. All authors should have made substantial contributions to the following: (i) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (iii) final approval of the version to be submitted.
•    Authors, in their submission cover letter to the Editor- in- Chief, should indicate whether the manuscript shall be considered as an Original Research article, Short Communication or Review article.

1.2.    Transfer of Copyright Agreement
•    When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors will be expected to sign an agreement for the transfer of copyright to the JASETD. A copyright agreement form shall be downloaded online from the JASETD page by corresponding authors of accepted manuscripts. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.

1.3.    Peer Review
•    All manuscripts will be subjected to confidential peer review by experts in the field who will advise on whether the manuscript shall be accepted unconditionally, accepted subject to revision or rejected. Nevertheless, the final decision on acceptance for publication rests with the Editor- in- Chief.  
•    Authors are required to submit the names of two to three recommended referees in the article’s area of study. These referees should not work at the same institution or in the same lab group as the authors, nor should they have published with the authors within the last two years.  

2.0.    PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS
•    Manuscripts should be written in clear and concise English. Consistency in the type of English used (either American or Imperial) is important.
•    Manuscripts should be double-spaced on A4-size with Times New Roman, 12 point fonts and the set top and bottom margins set at 1”, left and right margins at 1.25”. The body of the manuscript should be justified.
•    Authors should number all of the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the title page.
•    Abbreviations and Symbols: Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.  

2.1.    Original Research Article
•    Original articles should present data and information from original research and should contain maximum of 7,000 words exclusive of references. Manuscripts should contain a word count.
•    The original research articles should be compiled in the following order: Title, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgments; Declaration of interest statement; Supplementary data appendices (if any); and  References.
•    The details of each component of the Original Research articles are described in the below sample template:


Original Research Paper Template
TITLE (A maximum of 12 words) (should be concise and informative. Authors should include all information in the title that will make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific). Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible).

First Authora*, Second Authorb … and Nth Authorn
aMailing address of author’s affiliation
bMailing address of author’s affiliation
*Corresponding author’s mailing, telephone, and email contacts

(Present the authors' affiliation addresses below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author).

Abstract
•    This section highlights the summary of the paper in not more than 300 words.  A concise and factual abstract is required. It should provide the context or background for the study and should state the study’s purpose, basic procedures, main findings (giving statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
•    An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s).

Graphical abstract
•    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article.
•    Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file. Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 x 1328 pixels. The image should be readable using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types include TIFF / JPEG, EPS/ PDF, or MS Office files.

Keywords: 4 - 5 key words related to the work should be provided


1.    INTRODUCTION
•    This section should provide sufficient literature on what has been done with regard to the problems being formulated, identifying milestones made so far and deficiencies in the past approaches. The authors should outline the objectives to be accomplished in the paper.
•    Sufficient references should be cited with preference being the most recent publications in the area. Citations should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) style. References within the text should be cited using the author / date system.   
•    Provide only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

2.    MATERIALS AND METHODS
•    In this section, a detailed description of the materials, methods and tools used in the work should be given. The components may include samples, study area, experimental design, protocols, data collection and analysis. Authors may include other subsections that are relevant in their respective research areas. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference, whereas only relevant modifications should be described in sufficient detail.
•    Authors publishing results from experiments involving animals or humans should state whether due permission for conduction of these experiments was obtained, from the relevant ethics committees.   
•    Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. All methods of statistical analysis (and their software packages) should be described in the text.
•    Both confidence intervals (CI) or significance assessments (p-values) are acceptable; whereas standard deviation should be used in instances in which emphasize needs to be given on varying individual values.  

3.    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
•    A combined Results and Discussion section is recommended.
•    Results - Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and/or illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary data and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text.
•    Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data.  
•    Figures and tables should be embedded in text. Ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.
•    Discussion - The discussion should provide an interpretation of the results and their significance with regard to previously published work.
•    Generally, it is useful to begin the discussion by summarizing briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and practice.
•    There should not be any significant repetition of the experimental procedures or reiteration   of the introduction. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them.

4.    CONCLUSION
•    This section highlights the most important finding(s) of the research and may also include the potential areas of further research. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data.

Acknowledgements
•    Use this section to appreciate support that facilitated the research with respect to infrastructure, technical support, data analysis and funding. The source of any financial support, gifts, technical assistance and advice received for the work being published must be indicated. Some authors may elect not to include any acknowledgments.

Conflict of interest declaration
•    It is the responsibility of authors to disclose any affiliation with any organization with a financial interest, direct or indirect, in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript (such as consultancies, employment, paid expert testimony, honoraria, ownership, patents or patent applications or travel grants) that may affect the conduct or reporting of the work submitted. All sources of funding are to be explicitly stated.
•    The intent of this policy is not to prevent authors with any particular relationship or interest from publishing their work, but rather to adopt transparency such that reviewers, editors, the publisher, and most importantly readers can make objective judgements concerning the work product.   

Supplementary data (if any)
•    JASETD accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research.
•    Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of the article in JASETD. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file.
•    If there is more than one supplementary data, they should be identified as S1, S2, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (S.1), Eq. (S.2), etc. Similarly for tables and figures: Table S.1; Fig. S.1, etc.

REFERENCES
Reference style and format: Authors should cite the most recent references in their field. The APA style of referencing is recommended. A maximum of 40 references is accepted for both review and original articles. Below are some of examples of End-reference formatting styles for titles of journal papers, books, conference proceedings, and other references sources.


Journal Papers and magazines:
Aduol, F. W. (2009). Estimation of the Geoid using GPS double differentials. Survey Review, 24(2), 341 – 352.


Lock, G. and Jongelin, S. (1994). Maximizing Return Rates in School Based Research. African  Journal of  Food and  Nutrition Science, 1: 13-14


Books: Rasnamurthi, B. and Raj, K. J. (2010). Advances in Remote Sensing applications in India. Mehta Press, New Delhi. pp 101-015.


Conference Proceedings: Kamau, C., Otieno, R., Tanui, J. and Wahid, A. (2004). Perturbations of the Eccliptic. In: Proceedings of the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Hahn, M. and Behr, F.J (Eds).  pp 105 – 118.


Technical reports: Cosyn, B. and Pannisoni, C. (1996). GIS (GRASS) set up for Hydrologic Sensing data from the Zwalm Catchment (Belgium). Cagliari, Italy, Center for Advanced Studies; Technical Bulletin no. CRS4 ENVPRJJ-95/1


Internet: Pebesema, E.J. (1999). GStat User’s Manual .http:www.geog.nu.nl.gstat. Retrieved Jan. 10, 2012.

2.1.1.    Additional author information on tables, figures and illustrations
(i)    Tables
•    All tables and graphics should be done in MsWord and incorporated into the body of the document in their proper places and should be referenced in the text. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals (e.g. Table 2), be cited in the text and have a short descriptive caption at the top.
•    Avoid the use of vertical lines in the tables. Instead use only 3 full width horizontal lines (one outlining the start, one outlining the end, and one outlining the head row)
•    Each table should be on a separate sheet, together with a legend and/or footnotes identified by superscripts a, b, c, etc
•    Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use the following symbols, in sequence: *, †, ‡, ||, **, ††, ‡‡. Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.

(ii)    Figures
•    Figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 5). Graphs should be presented in such a manner that they can be understood without reading the text. Appropriate symbols should be used on graphs and explained in the legends. Graphs should not duplicate results presented in tables.
•    Formula and equations, structural and chemical formula, process flow diagrams and complicated mathematical expressions should be very clearly presented. All subscripts, Greek letters and unusual characters must be identified.
•    Ensure that each figure has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the figure. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

(iii)    Illustrations
•    Illustrations (line drawings, halftones, photos, photomicrographs, colour artwork etc.) should be submitted as digital files for highest quality reproduction and should follow these guidelines: 300 dpi or higher resolution sized to fit on journal page; should be in an acceptable format (TIFF / JPEG), EPS/ PDF), or MS Office files).
•    All illustrations should be submitted as separate files, not embedded in the text
•    Any illustration submitted as a colour original will appear in colour in the JASETD online edition free of charge. Print copy colour reproduction will only be considered on condition that authors bear the associated costs.

2.2.    Review articles
•    Full-length Review articles should be about 5000-7000 words including abstract and references and contain up-to-date information providing comprehensive coverage of relevant literature. Review articles should preferably be written by scientists who have in-depth knowledge of the topic. Emphasis should be placed on late-breaking advances.
•    The body of a review article should be a comprehensive, scholarly evidence-based review of the literature, accompanied by critical analysis and leading to reasonable conclusions.
•    Reviews should definitely have an abstract and introduction. Wherever appropriate details of the literature search methodology should be provided, i.e. the databases searched, the search terms and inclusive dates, and any selectivity criteria imposed. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

2.3.    Short Communication
•    Short communications articles shall present important new finding and shall be   maximum 2500 words, including abstract and references.
•    All format requirements are similar to those applicable to Original Research Article, including the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and references.
•    Short Communications may include a maximum of 3 figures and/or tables, which together may occupy no more than one full page


3.0.    SUBMISSION OF PREPARED ARTICLES


3.1.    Submission checklist
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
•    Cover letter
•    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: E-mail address, Full postal address, Phone numbers
•    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain: Keywords, All figure captions, All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
•    Further considerations: Required word counts per manuscript category; Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'; References are in the correct format for this journal; All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa; Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources.

3.2.    Manuscript Submission
All submissions should be made electronically via JASETD email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail.